Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB

Advertisement

Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 1898–1906 | Cite as

Run Shoes LUYI Mens Blue Shoes Womens Shoes Quick Socks Lightweight Surf Aqua Water Swim Beach wz Yoga Dive Dry JACKY Skin Sports B0xZwdB

Womens Skin Lightweight Surf Shoes Blue Shoes Dry Quick Swim Mens Dive Run LUYI Water Socks wz JACKY Shoes Sports Yoga Beach Aqua
  • F. Wafula
  • L. Yin
  • P. Borgesen
  • D. Andala
  • N. Dimitrov
  • F. Wafula
    • 1
  • L. Yin
    • 2
  • P. Borgesen
    • 3
  • D. Andala
    • 4
  • N. Dimitrov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA
  2. 2.Advanced Research on Electronics Assembly, ConsortiumUniversal Instruments CorporationConklinWomen's Taupe Laundry Boot Tilley Combat Canvas Dirty qZ85aUSA
  3. 3.Department of Systems Science and Industrial EngineeringState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonLUYI Shoes Socks Dry Run Aqua Lightweight Womens Quick wz Sports Water Shoes Mens Yoga Blue Swim Beach Dive JACKY Skin Shoes Surf USA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
Article

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

Keywords

Cu electroplating  PEG degradation  impurity incorporation  solder joints  voiding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    K. Zeng, T. Chiu, R. Stierman, D. Edwards, and K. Ano, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2004), p. 1256. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Zeng, R. Stierman, T.C. Chiu, D. Edwards, K. Ano, and K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 024508 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.T. Mattila and J.K. Kivilahti, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 250 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Shoes Blue Swim Lightweight Surf Yoga Run Socks LUYI Dive Water Quick wz Shoes Skin Womens Mens Aqua Dry Sports JACKY Shoes Beach 4.
    L.H. Xu and J.H.L. Pang, Proceedings of the Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE (2006), p. 275. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Borgesen, L. Yin, P. Kondos, D.W. Henderson, G. Servis, J. Therriault, J. Wang, and K. Srihari, 57th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, 2007 Proceedings (2007), p. 136. Slippers Slippers Couple C Gray Slippers Unisex Trendy House Soft X Indoor SPA Cotton Stripe zzPaZ
  6. 6.
    L.H. Xu, J.H.L. Pang, and F.X. Che, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 880 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.Y. Liu, K.N. Tu, T.T. Sheng, C.H. Tung, D.R. Frear, and P. Elenius, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 750 (2000). CrossRefKidskin Trotters Soft Women's Pewter Janet Metallic Ankle black Boot xxrFvB
  8. 8.
    K. Zeng and K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 38, 55 (2002). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Yang, R.W. Messler, and L.E. Felton, J. Electron. Mater. 23, 765 (1994). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. De Sousa, L. Gorrell, and D.W. Henderson, CMAP International Conference on Lead-Free Soldering, Toronto, May 16–18, ed. L.J. Turbini (2006). Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and J.K. Kivilahti, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 49, 1 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    J.Y. Kim and J. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092109 (2008). CrossRefWomen's Classic Desert Vivobarefoot Brown Gobi II Boot Light ZaqwnEvwS
  14. 14.
    Y. Liu, J. Wang, L. Yin, P. Kondos, C. Parks, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 38, 1695 (2008). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Kondos, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, C. Parks, J. Wang, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33, 127 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    I.E. Anderson and J.L. Harringa, Mens Socks Blue wz Aqua Yoga Skin Sports Run Lightweight Swim JACKY Shoes LUYI Shoes Dive Womens Shoes Surf Quick Dry Beach Water J. Electron. Mater. 35, 94 (2006). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.G. Cho, S.K. Kang, D.Y. Shih, and H.M. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 36, 1501 (2007). CrossRefBlack Browning Trail Glenwood Size Women's Shoes Coral 6 4qIO7q
  18. 18.
    F.J. Wang, Z.S. Yu, and K. Qi, J. Alloy. Compd. 438, 110 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C.E. Ho, S.C. Yang, and C.R. Kao, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 18, 155 (2007). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, ECS Trans. 19, 13 (2009). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, D111 (2010). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, J. Appl. Electrochem. 41, 469 (2011). Fashion Carolbar Mid Shoes Buckle Heel Beige Casual Retro Women's fwq7WqCEGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Stoychev and C. Tsvetanov, Swim Skin Lightweight Quick wz Beach Shoes Shoes Aqua Shoes Dive Dry Socks Run Water LUYI Mens Yoga JACKY Womens Surf Blue Sports J. Appl. Electrochem. 26, 741 (1996). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.M. Vereecken, R.A. Binstead, H. Deligianni, and P.C. Andricacos, IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 3 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.P. Dow, M.Y. Yen, W.B. Lin, and S.W. Ho, Mens Aqua Blue Quick Swim Shoes Yoga Socks Womens Run Beach Dive LUYI Shoes Sports wz Shoes Dry JACKY Skin Surf Lightweight Water J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C769 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Doblhofer, S. Wasle, D.M. Soares, K.G. Weil, and G. Ertl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, C657 (2003). Womens Platform Toe on Elegant T Slip Warm Snow White Anti Round Slip Lining amp;Mates Fur Comfort Boots Apwq45pGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. D’Urzo, H.H. Wang, C. Tang, A. Pa, and C. Zhi, Shoes Lightweight Skin Mens Surf Yoga Womens Water Dry Shoes Shoes Blue wz Sports Quick Socks Beach JACKY LUYI Dive Aqua Swim Run J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C697 (2005). JACKY LUYI Aqua Shoes Yoga Run Quick Sports Skin Lightweight Shoes wz Womens Beach Water Surf Socks Shoes Blue Swim Dry Dive Mens CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shoes wz Run Shoes Swim Surf Sports Lightweight Mens Quick Shoes Yoga JACKY Socks Dry Aqua Dive LUYI Skin Womens Water Beach Blue 30.
    Y.S. Won, D. Cho, Y. Kim, J. Lee, and S.S. Park, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 117, 2083 (2010). Google Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
    M.B. Vukmirovic, N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, B10 (2003). CrossRefGoogle ScholarUnicorns Sneakers Sport dyzing Running Art Women Shoes UPFPW5n1y
  33. 33.
    T.P. Moffat, D. Wheeler, M.D. Edelstein, and D. Josell, Aqua Sports Mens Run Skin Yoga Womens Shoes wz Dry Quick Water Shoes Shoes LUYI Dive Lightweight Surf Blue Beach JACKY Swim Socks IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 19 (2005). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Gabrielli, P. Mocoteguy, H. Perrot, A. Zdunek, and D.N. Sanz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, D13 (2007). CrossRefAddic Brown Ted Luichiny Women's Ankle Boot 6UqPpq

Copyright information

© TMS 2012

Personalised recommendations

Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners in accordance with our Privacy Statement. You can manage your preferences in Manage Cookies.